IEEE 2017-2018 Project Titles on Electrical

Abstract:

In this paper Wireless Sensor Home Area Network (WSHAN) with ZigBee interfaced smart meter is designed and implemented. Because of the increasing demands on electricity, traditional electric grid needs to be replaced with intelligent, robust, reliable and costly effective smart grid applications. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has a critical role to set up a reliable and costly effective smart electric power grid applications. Our system measures energy usage, logs data real time and shows time of use (TOU) values. The system also controls any device connected to power outputs. While powering on and off, zero-cross of AC signal is detected to calculate phase shift. The smart meter provides correct power usage and transmits data with ZigBee to PC (Personal Computer). The user monitors the power information and remotely controls the system.

Abstract:

Electricity is one of the fundamental necessities of human beings, which is commonly used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. Power theft is the biggest problem in recent days which causes lot of loss to electricity boards. In countries like India, these situations are more often. If we can prevent these thefts we can save lot of power. This is done using Smart Energy Meter (SEM). SEM is an electric device having energy meter chip for measuring the electric energy consumed and a wireless protocol for data communication. This paper presents a smart energy meter for an automatic metering and billing system. In this meter energy utilized and the corresponding amount will be displayed on the LCD continuously and communicated to the controlling base station. The feedback from the user helps in identifying the usages between authorized and unauthorized users which helps in controlling the power theft. Communication between user/household and substation is done using Zigbee. GSM network is used for sending SMS to the local authorities regarding the theft cases. This meter can work as either prepaid or post-paid meter. The proposed system replaces traditional meter reading methods and enables remote access of existing energy meter by the energy provider. Also they can monitor the meter readings regularly without the person visiting each house.

Abstract:

The design and implementation studies of a remote monitoring system are presented in this study. The proposed design is improved in terms of smart metering infrastructure based on current, voltage, and power measurements. The communication among the photovoltaic (PV) panels and host PC is performed by designed ZigBee transceiver system. Sensing circuits are very important devices to measure for both current and voltage magnitudes of electrical systems. The measured data are processed by the microcontroller unit (MCU) and are modulated after signal processing operations for wireless transmission. Although the transceiver is configured to execute bi-directional communication, unidirectional data flow is performed where the smart metering system transmits data to monitoring substructure. The monitoring software is also implemented in the context of the presented study. The Visual Studio.Net software development kit is used to design and to code the software. The performed experimental studies showed that the proposed real time monitoring and smart metering system could be exploited to monitor current, voltage and power magnitudes of the PV panels in an efficient way.

Abstract:

Overhead and underground power line monitoring is an essential infrastructure for advanced operation in the smart grid. Wireless sensor networks are attractive to remote power line monitoring, due to their rare geography restrictions, simple engineering design, and flexible equipment expansion. Considering the ZigBee's characteristic of low transmission rate, almost commercial sensors adopt the high-speed communication, such as Cellular and WiFi, to implement the real-time wireless monitoring. However, among all wireless technologies, ZigBee, characterizing high security, ultra-low power consumption, reliable network, low cost, and ease of design, is widely used in many industries. This paper proposes a new ZigBee-based communication for multifunctional electronic current transformers (ECTs), which are used in overhead and underground line monitoring. To tackle ZigBee's low transmission rate, the proposed method involving a transmission strategy can make the ZigBee-based communication satisfy both measurable and protective purposes of multifunctional ECTs. Finally, the new ZigBee-based wireless communication is implemented and integrated with an ECT, which is based on the coreless Hall-effect current transformer (HCT), and the proposed ZigBee-based wireless multifunctional HCT is called ZiHCT. The measurement results show that the ZiHCT can achieve accuracy not only to Class 0.5 for measuring CTs, but also to Class 5P20 for protective CTs according to IEC standard 60044-8.

Abstract:

The article elaborates the design and construction of automatic light control system. The developed electronic system eliminates the disadvantages of the existing systems by taking date and time from the GPS, as it also gives information about the position of the system. Based on the results the microcontroller calculates and automatically detects geographical area and retrieve relevant data for sunrise and sunset in the area, respectively ensures very precise ON/OFF mode of the lighting system. It doesn't need operator maintenance and initial installation setup. The developed electronic device increases bulb life in result of the dimming effect. On the other hand this decrease of the illumination leads to reduce in the energy consumption.

Abstract:

PV modules operating under partially shaded conditions exhibit multiple peaks in their output power curves, which cause the majority of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques to become trapped in a local power peak. This unfortunately leads to additional energy losses that could otherwise be harvested if the global maximum power peak (GMPP) were correctly tracked. The available MPPT methods that are able to track the GMPP require periodic scanning of the PV curve, which disturbs the operation of the system and causes energy losses. A new MPPT technique is proposed in this paper that is distinguished by its ability to find the GMPP without the need for periodic curve scanning. The proposed method utilizes the mathematical model of the PV module, as well as the irradiances received by its PV cells, to analytically calculate the location of the GMPP. The required irradiances are innovatively estimated using an image of the PV module captured by an optical camera. The proposed method is also combined with the perturb and observe method to compensate for errors in the model or irradiance estimation. Experimental verifications are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT method under various shading scenarios.

Abstract:

The number of wireless medical wearables has increased in recent years and is revolutionizing the current healthcare system. However, the state-of-the-art systems still need to be improved, as they are bulky, battery powered, and so require maintenance. On the contrary, battery-free wearables have unlimited lifetimes, are smaller, and are cheaper. This paper describes a design of a battery free wearable system that measures the skin temperature of the human body while at the same time collects energy from body heat. The system is composed of an UHF RFID temperature sensor tag located on the arm of the patient. It is assisted with extra power supply from a power harvesting module that stores the thermal energy dissipated from the neck of the patient. This paper presents the experimental results of the stored thermal energy, and characterizes the module in different conditions, e.g., still, walking indoors, and walking outdoors. Finally, the tag is tested in a fully passive condition and when it is power assisted. Our experimental results show that the communication range of the RFID sensor is improved by 100% when measurements are done every 750 ms and by 75% when measurements are done every 1000 ms when the sensor is assisted with the power harvesting module.

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative electromagnetic energy harvester and its power interface to power wireless speed sensor used in bicycles. The self-powered wireless speed sensor does not need maintenance, since it does not use pollutant batteries that must be replaced. The energy harvester is made up of a coil that takes energy from the wheel's rotation and at the same time, it senses the wheel revolution. This energy is enough to elaborate and transmit speed data to nearby devices, such as smartphones using low-power RF protocols. A prototype of the electromagnetic energy harvester was built and the harvested energy was measured. Furthermore, a power interface circuit based on passive voltage doubler and low power dc/dc regulator was designed. Finally, the power interface, some energetic consideration, and the feasibility of the sensor were validated using SPICE simulations.

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a low complexity Fuzzy Logic Controller of only 25-rules to be embedded in an Energy Management System for a residential grid-connected microgrid including Renewable Energy Sources and storage capability. The system assumes that neither the renewable generation nor the load demand is controllable. The main goal of the design is to minimize the grid power profile fluctuations while keeping the Battery State of Charge within secure limits. Instead of using forecasting-based methods, the proposed approach uses both the microgrid energy rate-of-change and the battery SOC to increase, decrease or maintain the power delivered/absorbed by the mains. The controller design parameters (membership functions and rule-base) are adjusted to optimize a pre-defined set of quality criteria of the microgrid behavior. A comparison with other proposals seeking the same goal is presented at simulation level, whereas the features of the proposed design are experimentally tested on a real residential microgrid implemented at the Public University of Navarre.

Abstract:

Objective: This study aimed to verify and compare the accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) prediction models using shoe-based motion detectors with embedded accelerometers. Methods: Three physical activity (PA) datasets (unclassified, recognition, and intensity segmentation) were used to develop three prediction models. A multiple classification flow and these models were used to estimate EE. The “unclassified” dataset was defined as the data without PA recognition, the “recognition” as the data classified with PA recognition, and the “intensity segmentation” as the data with intensity segmentation. The three datasets contained accelerometer signals (quantified as signal magnitude area (SMA)) and net heart rate (HRnet). The accuracy of these models was assessed according to the deviation between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE. Results: The variance between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE expressed by simple linear regressions was increased by 63% and 13% using SMA and HRnet, respectively. The accuracy of the EE predicted from accelerometer signals is influenced by the different activities that exhibit different count-EE relationships within the same prediction model. Conclusion: The recognition model provides a better estimation and lower variability of EE compared with the unclassified and intensity segmentation models. Significance: The proposed shoe-based motion detectors can improve the accuracy of EE estimation and has great potential to be used to manage everyday exercise in real time.

Abstract:

Solar energy with solar tracking, will become possible to generate more energy since the solar panel depends on the sun. Even though the initial cost of setting up the tracking system is considerably high, there are cheaper options that have been proposed over time. Light Dependent Resistors (LDRs) are used for sunlight detection. The control circuit is ATMega 328P microcontroller. The solar panel is positioned where it is able to receive maximum light. As compared to other motors, the servo motors are able to maintain their torque at high speed. They are also more efficient with efficiencies in the range of 80-90%. Most of the panels still operate at less than 40%. As a result, most people are forced to either purchase a number of panels to meet their energy demands or purchase single systems with large outputs. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of solar panels while reducing costs is to use tracking. Through tracking, there will be increased exposure of the panel to the sun, making it increased power output. The trackers can either be dual or single axis trackers. Dual trackers are more efficient because they track sunlight from both axes.

Abstract:

Smart grid with latest technologies provides solid foundation for the implementation of energy management systems at home premises. This paper proposes an autonomous energy management-based cost reduction solution for peak load times using a home energy management system (HEMS). Within a home environment, both the real time and the schedulable appliances are connected with smart meter through HEMS. We formulate an optimization problem under various practical constraints, which is shown to be a mixed integer programming problem that can be solved through a step-wise approach. A novel scheme based on Dijkstra algorithm is proposed, which results in the similar performance to that of the proposed optimal scheme while exhibiting much lower complexity. To further save the computational efforts, a low complexity scheme is also proposed, which produces considerably better results than the non-optimized scheme with the same complexity yet. Simulation results are presented at show the performance and complexity comparison of different proposed solutions and the existing methods.

Abstract:

Renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy systems are widely designed grid connected or autonomous. This is a problem especially in small powerful system due to the restriction on the inverter markets. Inverters which are utilised in these kinds of energy systems operate on grid or off grid. In this study, a novel power management strategy has been developed by designing a wind-PV hybrid system to operate both as an autonomous system and as a grid-connected system. The inverter used in this study has been designed to operate both on-grid and off-grid. Due to the continuous demand for energy, gel batteries are used in the hybrid system. The designed Power Management Unit performs measurement from various points in the system and in accordance with this measurement; it provides an effective energy transfer to batteries, loads and grid. The designed control unit provided the opportunity to work more efficiently up to 10% rate.

Abstract:

Demand side management (DSM) will play a significant role in the future smart grid by managing loads in a smart way. DSM programs, realized via home energy management systems for smart cities, provide many benefits; consumers enjoy electricity price savings and utility operates at reduced peak demand. In this paper, evolutionary algorithms-based (binary particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, and cuckoo search) DSM model for scheduling the appliances of residential users is presented. The model is simulated in time of use pricing environment for three cases: 1) traditional homes; 2) smart homes; and 3) smart homes with renewable energy sources. Simulation results show that the proposed model optimally schedules the appliances resulting in electricity bill and peaks reductions.

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel optimal energy storage control scheme is investigated in smart grid environments with solar renewable energy. Based on the idea of adaptive dynamic programming (ADP), a self-learning algorithm is constructed to obtain the iterative control law sequence of the battery. Based on the data of the real-time electricity price (electricity rate in brief), the load demand (load in brief), and the solar renewable energy (solar energy in brief), the optimal performance index function, which minimizes the total electricity cost and simultaneously extends the battery's lifetime, is established. A new analysis method of the iterative ADP algorithm is developed to guarantee the convergence of the iterative value function to the optimum under iterative control law sequence for any time index in a period. Numerical results and comparisons are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithm.

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in distribution systems, a new player, called EV parking lot operator (EV PLO), is emerging around the world. Furthermore, the integration of distributed generation in the distribution level, in particular, renewable energy sources (RESs), is leading to the establishment of various markets in distribution systems. On one hand, such PLOs aim at managing their EVs within their parking lots to participate in the distribution markets and to maximize their profits. On the other hand, a distribution system operator (DSO) seeks to minimize the system-wide cost while minimizing renewable power spillage and the side-effects of its intermittency. This interaction inspires the innovative two-level model proposed in this paper. In the first level, a new model is proposed for EV PLOs which models the EVs’ characteristics, including EV owners’ uncertainties, in a reasonably accurate manner. These PLOs are allowed to participate in energy, reserve and regulation distribution markets by optimally managing their EVs. In the second level, a new model is developed to ensure that the technical constraints in the distribution networks are met while minimizing the overall system cost. In addition, this work evaluates the effects of the penetration level and the placement of wind and solar PV on the offering strategies of EV parking lots, as well as on the overall performance of the distribution systems.

Abstract:

Demand side management (DSM) will play a significant role in the future smart grid by managing loads in a smart way. DSM programs, realized via home energy management systems for smart cities, provide many benefits; consumers enjoy electricity price savings and utility operates at reduced peak demand. In this paper, evolutionary algorithms-based (binary particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, and cuckoo search) DSM model for scheduling the appliances of residential users is presented. The model is simulated in time of use pricing environment for three cases: 1) traditional homes; 2) smart homes; and 3) smart homes with renewable energy sources. Simulation results show that the proposed model optimally schedules the appliances resulting in electricity bill and peaks reductions.

Abstract:

The idea of controlling the demand side electrical consumption has led the dissemination of demand response applications under smart grid concept. Especially residential demand response applications have been widely adopted and many studies have been conducted in the world. In this study general information about demand response is given and demand response research in the world and in Turkey is summarized. A simulation study is completed to show the effect of demand response application in a residential house using load shifting. In the simulation study, electrical appliances, which are intended to be used at high priced hours, are shifted forward in time to control the peak demand of the house. Considering new smart appliances and internet of things (IOT) applications, the demand response will offer new perspectives on electrical energy generation/consumption and on the operation of power systems.

Abstract:

Smart Switch allows switching almost any appliance ON and OFF remotely via local network or via internet. It is designed to receive start/stop commands and monitoring smart switch application like voltage, current and power. The paper presents a smart power switch system that can be controlled wirelessly or via internet, which has ability control power outlet and monitor electrical events such as voltage, current and power consumption. This system embeds program into microcontroller to control over all process, in addition to voltage and current sensor. The main system features include the remote control of multiple power outlet, control smart plugs, real-time monitoring of the current, voltage and power consumption, schedule the devices on/off time with consumption limits, calculate the electrical cost that user can interface it by any operating system. A prototype of the system has been implemented and tested with local network and internet in order to monitor its functionalities. The overall results proved that system runs fast and has very close energy monitoring to common monitoring devised. This system can be replaced manual distribution board and old energy meter to have one auto-remoted real time monitoring smart switch.

Abstract:

An efficient micro-scale solar power management architecture for self-powered Internet-of-Things node is presented in this paper. The proposed architecture avoids the linear regulator and presents a complete on-chip switched capacitor based power converter in order to achieve higher end-to-end efficiency. Unlike traditional architectures, where the harvested energy processes twice, the proposed architecture processes the harvested energy only once before it reaches to the load circuit, irrespective of the ambient conditions. The system efficiency has been improved by ~12% over the traditional architecture. The entire power management system has been designed using 0.18-μm CMOS technology node, and the circuit simulations demonstrate that the proposed architectural changes bring in a system efficiency of 82.4% under different light conditions. In addition to that, a hardware setup is created using commercially available ICs and photovoltaic cells, to validate that the proposed power management system is practically realizable.

Abstract:

Due to the growing interconnectedness and complexity of in-vehicle networks, in addition to safety, security is becoming an increasingly important topic in the automotive domain. In this paper we study techniques for detecting security infringements in automotive Electrical and Electronic (E/E) architectures. Towards this we propose in-vehicle network traffic monitoring to detect increased transmission rates of manipulated message streams. Attacks causing timing violations can disrupt safety-critical functions and have severe consequences. To reduce costs and prevent single points of failure, our approach enables an automatic distribution of detection tasks among selected E/E architecture components, such as a subset of Electronic Control Units (ECUs). First, we analyze a concrete E/E system architecture to determine the communication parameters and properties necessary for detecting security attacks. These are then used for a parametrization of the corresponding detection algorithms and the distribution of attack detection tasks. We use a lightweight message monitoring method and optimize the placement of detection tasks to ensure a full-coverage of the E/E system architecture and a timely detection of an attack.

Abstract:

This article provides an overview of the development and standardizations of connectivity solutions for enabling the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). It also highlights key IIoT connectivity technologies and platforms that have the potential of driving the next industrial revolution. In addition, the article addresses the main challenges standing in the way of realizing the full potential of the IIoT, namely attaining secure connectivity and managing a vastly fragmented ecosystem of connectivity solutions and platforms. Finally, IIoT connectivity challenges are illustrated by the example of future building automation.

Abstract:

Power electronic sources such as Type 3 wind turbine generators and static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) interface to the grid through, partial- or full-scale, power converters that have inherently fast switching capability to control their output current during short circuits. The short circuit current is a function of the specific converter control algorithm and differs significantly from the conventional rotating machine sources without converter interfaces. Therefore, if a transmission line protection scheme is designed for conventional sources, (not taking into account these differences in short circuit current characteristics), reliability can be at risk. Using real life short circuit currents on lines supplied by sources having a power converter interface, this paper illustrates the reliability risk to conventional line protection schemes, in particular to those which use negative sequence quantities for detection of unbalanced faults. The paper discusses the protection schemes, adopted by BC Hydro – a large Canadian Electric Utility, for transmission lines interconnecting Type 3 wind turbine and STATCOM sources. Their application for ground faults is independent of the converter control algorithm as long as the source is interconnected to the grid via a transformer which is a source of zero sequence current.

Abstract:

Smart meter is an advanced energy meter which not only measures the electrical energy consumption, but also provides real time data on power consumed by electrical loads. Any smart meter needs an infrastructure, wired/wireless, for data communication with the central server. To enable this two-way communication link, we propose a narrowband Power Line Communication (PLC) system operating at a rate of few kbps and this can be deployed over existing outdoor/indoor power lines. Our design demonstrates reusing the existing wired electrical network to provide communication between the smart meter and a central server. A low-cost dedicated hardware for measuring the power usage of electrical appliance is designed. Further, a user interface is developed to remotely access the power usage measurements stored at the central hub database with features of power management. With the usage data at hand, smart decisions can be made in saving energy and, reducing carbon foot-prints. Our design uses low cost and off the shelf devices and no additional wiring as it communicates over the existing power line infrastructure.

Abstract:

The reliability and quality of electrical power networks are affected by the occurrence of electrical faults. In this paper, we propose a novel method to identify the occurrence of faults in distribution networks, based on impedance measurements performed at the central distribution office. The measurements can be performed using PLC modems that belong to the energy metering infrastructure. The fault is detected by means of continuous impedance monitoring and afterwards its distance from the central office is estimated using the same measurement traces, without requiring additional information. Different type of faults are tested, and the effect of the measurement bandwidth and the electrical noise on the measurement is also assessed.

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mobile phone application that allows the user to analyse their driving habits and therefore recognize whether an electric vehicle would suit the users' requirements. The application analyses the daily trips and charging possibilities, recorded as per user input. The resulting demands are compared to available electric vehicles as well as extended range electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The vehicles that suit the requirements are presented to the user, taking not only the ideal range into account but also the realistic range in mild and cold weather conditions. Accordingly, the user receives reliable results, and therefore might utilize an electric vehicle sooner than originally envisaged.

Abstract:

Variability in the solar irradiance level and ambient temperature of photovoltaic (PV) systems necessitates the use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV systems to ensure continuous harvesting of maximum power. This paper presents a sensorless current (SC) MPPT algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). The main contribution of this paper is the use of model-based predictive control principle to eliminate the current sensor that is usually required for well-known MPPT techniques such as perturb and observe (P&O). By predicting the PV system states in horizon of time, the proposed method becomes an elegant, embedded controller that allows faster response and lower power ripple in steady state than the conventional P&O technique under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. This becomes possible without requiring expensive sensing and communications equipment and networks for direct measurement of solar irradiation changes. The performance of the proposed SC-MPC-MPPT with reduced load sensitivity is evaluated on the basis of industrial European Efficiency Test, EN 50530, that assesses the performance of PV systems under dynamic environmental conditions. The proposed control technique is implemented experimentally using dSPACE DS1007 platform to verify the simulation results.

Abstract:

Real-time awareness of the phasor state, including the volatile frequency and phase angle, is critical to maintain reliable and stable operations of the power grid. However, the high cost and low accessibility of current synchrophasors restrict their large-scale deployment over highly distributed microgrids. In this paper, we present a practical system design for monitoring the microgrid frequency and phase angle over mobile platforms and significantly reduce the cost of such monitoring. Being different from current synchrophasors, our system does not rely on continuous GPS reception and hence it is highly accessible and applicable to heterogeneous microgrid scenarios. We develop various techniques to provide the timing signal that is necessary for precise microgrid monitoring. For frequency monitoring, the network time protocol is exploited for time synchronization. For phase angle monitoring which requires a higher timing accuracy, 200 Hz primary synchronization signal being embedded in the 4G LTE cellular signal is harvested for time synchronization. We implemented our system over off-the-shelf smartphones with a few peripheral hardware components and realized an accuracy of 1.7 MHz and 0.01 rad for frequency and phase angle monitoring, respectively. Although the accuracy of the prototype is lower than that of the GPS-based systems, the system could still satisfy the requirements of microgrid monitoring. The total cost of the system can be controlled within $100 and no installation cost is required. Experiment results compared with the traditional frequency disturbance recorders verify the effectiveness of our proposed system.